Tuesday, August 20, 2019
The History Of Cadbury Chocolates Marketing Essay Cadbury chocolate development is not very well in a few years before. There was international acquisition between Kraft, Mars, Nestle and Cadbury. As a result, Kraft won the acquisition which is successful to have ownership of Cadbury. In recent years, Cadbury promotes Daily Milk chocolate with using Youtube movie such as Cadbury Eyebrows. When this movie uploads to Youtube, it spreads faster in the world. The most special is background music. When everyone listen the music in everywhere, they must link up to Cadbury chocolate. Therefore, most of people pay more attention on Cadbury this brand name and their products. . In the current market, there will be used SWOT to analyze as below: Strength: The famous brand name in the world including Hong Kong. The brand has almost 200 years history. In 2007, Cadbury promote new 10 products which are focus on healthy and high class. In 2009, the Eyebrows movie has changed the Cadbury traditional styles to become trendy. Weakness: Cadbury did not launch chocolate premium in special festivals which are Valentines Day, Halloween ,Christmas and so on in recent years. Opportunities: Cadbury can enlarge their market share in Hong Kong. They can open a specialty shop for selling chocolate products such as chocolate snacks, chocolate drinks, and chocolate cakes. They can do more promotion like coupons, trial products for customers. Also, they can make a cross over with Oreo chocolate cookies. Its can enhance the brand awareness. Threat: Cadbury chocolate was discovered some products have salmonella and melamine in 2006 and 2008. It is enormous impact of the brand. Customers lost the confidence of Cadbury chocolates. Also, they have many competitors such as Kinder, Toblerone, Ferrero Rocher and the other chocolate products. 1a.Competitive analysis In Hong Kong, the main competitor of Cadbury is Mars, Incorporated. They have famous products in Hong Kong such as MMs, Dove, Mars and Maltesers. Besides, they have five principles in their mission which are Quality, Responsibility, Mutuality, Efficiency and Freedom. They are using these five principles to give the best to customers and fulfill their needs. It can keep the good relationship with customers. Moreover, there are using lots of promotion to their chocolate products. For example, advertising on TV, magazines and posters. Also, internet like Facebook and Youtube must be the main channels for selling products. Furthermore, Mars, Incorporated has lots of product lines with good reputation. Different types of product can match different types of customers. It will be the strength of the brand to attract different customers. Also, the company would like to use cartoon to be celebrity endorsement to attract children to buy chocolate such as MM chocolate product use cartoon characters to promote. It is very successful. In the weakness, the brand awareness is not higher. Because of too many product lines in the brand, so most of customers only know the line of the brand. They dont know the head of the brand is Mars, Incorporated. 2.Cadburys Marketing Strategy Cadbury is using marketing mix as their marketing strategy. Marketing mix can control four tactical marketing tools which are product, price, place and promotion in order to produce the response it wants in the target market. Cadbury can do everything to influence the demand of those chocolate products. Cadbury offers different flavor of chocolate to the children and their parents, for example milk chocolate, dark chocolate, fruit and nut chocolate and whole nut chocolate. They are provided with high quality as Cadbury launched the Cadbury Cocoa Partnership, developing cocoa farms in Ghana, India, Indonesia and the Caribbean. These places are suitable for the cultivation of cocoa beans, and therefore Cadbury can control the quality of cocoa beans to produce chocolate products. There are different package of the chocolate products such as boxes, bags and bars. So that customers have many choices on choosing the type of packaging and flavors, and all the products are sold under Cadburys brand name with purple packages. Besides, Cadbury use cost-based pricing to set the chocolate products. They set the price based on the costs for producing, distributing, and selling the products plus a fair rate of return for its effort and risk. Sometimes, they will offer some discounts to reward customers for certain responses. The forms of discounts include cash discount and quantity discount. They would like to lower price of the chocolate products or buy large volumes with price reduction to buyers. Such discounts provide an incentive to the consumers to buy more. About the promotion mix they use are advertising on TV and magazines, sales promotion and public relations. Cadbury can promote their products through these channels, bringing the message share the joy today to the potential customers, communicate customer value and build a loyalty relationship with them. In the London 2012, Cadbury is one of the sponsors in this event, creating the sports and stripes event to bring the excitement of London 2012. Also, Cadbury created a athlete team that can be used across the business to motivate and inspire. Cadbury chocolate products sell in the convenience store like 7-Eleven, Circle K, Vingo and supermarket. These places are the consumers most likely to shop. Cadbury is using intensive distribution strategy, stocking the chocolate products in many outlets. As a result, these chocolate are available in everywhere when consumers want them so as to provide brand exposure and consumer convenience. 3.Branding Strategy Cadbury is using line extension strategy to apply the products it sells. Cadbury is likely to introduce the additional items in a given product category under Cadburys brand name, such as new flavor( milk, dark chocolate, fruit nut, caramel, truffles), forms, colors(purple), ingredients( vegetarian, nut-absent, Gluten-absent) or package sizes ( bags, bars, boxes, tins). Line extension brings more benefits for the firms and consumers. For the Cadbury, they might introduce new chocolate in a lower cost and lower risk way. Also they might want to meet consumer desire for variety, use excess capacity or simply to command more shelf space from resellers, giving more choice to consumers. On the others, there might be self-cannibalization and consumer confusion if the added chocolates have no differentiations from customers perspective. 4.Product marketing 4a.Point-of-purchase Cadbury chocolates are selling in the supermarkets and convenience stores. There are many types of Cadbury products. Locations are large and rent is lower. Some stores are located near residential areas. 4b.Product Life-Cycle Stage Cadbury chocolates are in the maturity stage. They have brand loyalty because of the long history of the brand. However, some products are launched a long time. It will go to decline stage. Therefore, it needs to do more sales promotion and personal selling to retain customers. 4c.Product Uniqueness Cadbury chocolate products have point-of-different. Their unique point is Cadbury chocolates using Green packaging and Fair-trade. About green packaging, they are using packaging design and waste strategy. They have environment concern such as using paper, board and cellulose film materials to make their product package. It can achieve substantial development. Also, Cadbury Dairy Milk has announced the investment plans for its first Fair-trade social premium to cocoa farmers in Ghana. The packaging also has the fair trade label to show that producers have better living condition and consumers can use lower price to get the products. It is good for both parties in the business. 5.Promotional Mix Promotional mix refers the basic tools used to accomplish an organizations communication objectives. The promotional mix has included six elements: advertising, direct market, internet marketing, sales promotion, public relations and personal selling. Each element as an integrated marketing communications tool that plays a distinctive role in an IMC program. Advertising refers any pay form of nonpersonal communication about the organization, product, service, or idea by an identified sponsor. The nonpersonal component means that advertising involves mass media such as TV, poster, magazine that can transmit a message to large groups of individuals at the same time. Direct marketing refers organizations communicate directly with target customers to generate a response, it involves different activities such as direct selling, database management and direct response advertising through direct mail, the internet and broadcast. Internet Marketing refers the interative media allow for a back-and-forth flow of information whereby users can participate in and modify the form and content of the information they receive in real time. The new media allow users receive and alter information and images, respond to questions and make purchases. For the internet, the interactive media include interactive television and mobile phone. Sales promotion refers marketing activities that provide extra value or incentives to the sales force, the distributors, or the ultimate consumer and can stimulate immediate sales. Public relations refers the management function which evaluates public attitudes, identifies the policies and procures of an individual or organization with the public interest, and executes an action to earn public understanding and acceptance, it is aims to establish and maintain a positive image of the company for the publics. Personal selling refers a form of person to person communication in which a seller attempts to assist prospective buyers to purchase the companys product or service or to act on an ideas. Cadbury used advertising, Sales promotions, Public relations and internet marketing to promote their companys product. For the advertising, Cadbury has poster in MTR and in store display at different supermarkets. The advantage of advertising is low promotional cost for the company, the interesting and beautiful poster or the in store display can attract customers attention. Also, the poster can let people watch a long time to know more the products details. The disadvantage of the advertising is it only can deliver a brief message about the product, it may only have a short term memory in customers mind. Moreover, the poster usually needs a larger place. Sometimes, it is difficult to find a suitable place for the companys poster and the poster is easily to be impaired by the human destruction or the weather condition. For the sales promotion, Cadbury has promoted the coupons and sweepstakes for the customer. For example, if the customers buy at least three products, it will have discount to buy the product. Also, Cadbury would holds some sweepstakes with other companies for the customers, the award will be concert tickets or some special drinks provide by other companies. The advantage of sales promotion is it can appeals price sensitive to consumers and offer discounts without retailer cooperation. Also, the promotional activities will easily attract the customers buy more products and it may motivate non target group customers try to taste the product and encourage customers buy the product again. The disadvantage of sales promotion is the cost will increase and low redemption rates. It often used by loyal consumers who would purchase anyway and hard to tell how many consumers will use them and when. Consumers only focus on sweepstakes, not brand. Sometimes, it may misredemption and fraud such as customer redemption for a product or size not specified on the coupon. For the public relations, Cadbury has a sponsorship with the Olympic 2012 in London. The advantage of public relations is it can enhance the companys brand awareness for the customers, It will increase the brand visibility. The disadvantage of public relations is it cannot deliver the products message to customers and the cost of sponsored usually be high. For the internet marketing, Cadbury has Facebook fans pages and Apps in the smartphone play store to provide the latest product information to the customers. The advertising of the internet is target marketing and information access. Target marketing means the Web is the ability to target very specific groups. Information access means the customers can find the products information in the website. The advantage of internet is two way forms of communication. Also, it offers the capability to more closely and precisely measure the effects of advertising and other types of promotion. The disadvantage of internet is customers may lack of motivate to find the advertisement to know the details of product. 6.Media Mix Media mix refers a wide variety of media and media vehicles are available to advertisers. The characteristics of the product or service, the size of the budget, and individual preference are some factors to determine what combination of media will be used. According to different promotional situation, the companies will use different promotional strategy such as TV, coupons and internet. TV is the most effective medium, coupons can stimulate customers to buy the products, Internet can help customers to find the in-depth information. Cadbury has some advertisements on TV. The advantages of TV are creativity and impact, coverage and cost effectiveness, captivity and attention, and selectivity and flexibility. For the creativity and impact, TV has provided a platform for presenting the advertising message. The sight and sound are creative and it can convey the brands image to develop the entertaining appeals that help make a dull product appear interesting. For the coverage and cost effectiveness, the advertising of TV make it possible to reach large audiences, the companies with widespread distribution and availability of their products use TV to deliver their messages at a low cost, it is very cost efficiently. For the captivity and attention, even to increase in viewing options and the automatic devices have made it easier for TV viewers to avoid commercial messages. However, the remaining viewers are devoted some attention on the advertisings messages that means the TV advertising have an effect on consumers mi nd through the repetition and slogans. For the selectivity and flexibility, with the growth of cable TV, the advertiser can refine their coverage further by appealing to groups with specific interests such as sports, news or music. The advertisers can adjust the media strategies of different geographic markets through local advertising in specific market areas and the advertising can run repeatedly of special occasions. The disadvantage of TV is high cost of buying airtime and producing a quality commercial. The geographic selectivity is a problem for local advertisers, TV still cannot offers as much audience selectivity as magazines or direct email for reaching precise segments of the market. The advertising of TV usually leave nothing tangible for the viewer to consider because the time of advertising become shorter and shorter. Moreover, the audience usually did not watch TV in advertising time, they may leave the room to go to the bathroom or get something to drink or eat. Sometimes, the audience may change TV channels to avoid the advertising. 7.Recommendation For the personal selling, when the Cadbury launch new product, they can recruit some short-term promoters to promote the new product. Also, the company can launch more promote events such as free tasting, It can attract the new customers. For the public relation, Cadbury can create more sponsorship with other sports competition and charity to increase the companys image and visibility. Also, the company can have celebrities endorsement, the company can use cartoon characters, famous stars to attract target customers. For example, Johnny Depp, he is a famous film called Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the theme of this movie is perfect match with Cadburys product. 8.Conclusion After doing the project, we discovered the products in Hong Kong are different from United Kingdom. Compared with Hong Kong, Cadbury is offer more products in UK. There are many types of chocolate products with different package in UK, for example truffles, hazelnut, peanut, toffee popcorn, Oreo chocolate and chocolate drinks. The packages are tins, boxes and bags. However, Hong Kong without these products/ Besides, the Cadburys products in Hong Kong are lack of creative packaging. They will not put more effort on designing the package during Halloween, Christmas, Chinese New Year and Easter. Thus, it cannot attract customers for buying and have no incentive on it. Moreover, Cadbury lack of direct marketing to communicate with consumers although they have advertising on TV, magazines and poster. As a result, there are some improvements. Firstly, Cadbury can introduce more products in a new product line by using brand extension. They can launch a new product or modified products in a new category under Cadburys brand name like chocolate drinks or chocolate ice-cream. From the customer perspective, they will be faster acceptance because Cadbury has long history and well-known in making chocolate. Also they can increase brand usage rate, increasing the frequency with Cadbury the consumer is consumed and making it easier to use and reduce the disincentives for use like sugar-free chocolate. Therefore, it can attract more customers to aware and buy it as the product is innovative and creative. In addition, Cadbury can operate a retail shop to sell their own products, decorating the store as a fairy tale and offering chocolate cake and chocolate drinks. So that customers can enjoy the use of these services and enhancing the brand awareness. Furthermore, Cadbury can be more concentrated on Hong Kong markets since Hong Kong market as the strategic point to enter China market, to be easier to enter China market in the future. Finally, promotion is rather important for Cadbury building its recognition. Since Cadbury can use promotional tools to persuasively communicate consumer value and building relationship with them. They cannot only have advertising on broadcast media and magazines. They can also have point-of-purchase advertising, display the chocolate products in the store shelf, thus reaching more customers and they can be aware of it. Outdoor advertising is also suitable. Signs on buses or MTR can be draw customers attention. Cadbury is the largest chocolate company in the world. We think that Cadbury do not only concentrate on the Americas markets since Asian and European markets are valuable to develop.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Unattainable Things in The Great Gatsby Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The roaring twenties. Cars were the things to have and a party was the place to be.Ã Everybody wanted something. F. Scott Fitzgerald's book, The Great Gatsby, describes the events that happen to eight people during the summer of 1922. In the book, people went from west to east because something they desired was in the east; unfortunatly in the end those 'somethings' were unattainable. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ...I decided to go east and learn the Ã Ã Ã bond business.Ã Everybody I knew was Ã Ã Ã in the bond business so I supposed it Ã Ã Ã could support one more single man. All Ã Ã Ã my aunts and uncles talked it over as Ã Ã Ã if they were choosing a prep school Ã Ã Ã for me... Ã Ã Nick went to the east to make money.Ã He was from the midwest, and even though his family was doing pretty well in the money department, Nick wanted to make his own money. By going from the midwest to the east, Fitzgerald shows Nick's desire to have more money.Ã After spending the summer in the east and seeing how money affects people, he decides to go back west. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã I see now that this has been a Ã Ã Ã story of the west,Ã after all-Tom Ã Ã Ã and Gatsby,Ã Daisy and Jordan and Ã Ã Ã I,Ã were all westerners and and Ã Ã Ã perhaps we possessed some deficiency Ã Ã Ã in common which made us subtly Ã Ã Ã unadaptable to eastern life. Ã Ã In other words, after finding out what the east was really like, Nick lost his interest in being in the east and returned to the west. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Gatsby came east looking for another type of money - Daisy.Ã Gatsby and Daisy had last seen each other about five years before, when they were dating. Then Gatsby had to go to war.Ã While he was away in war, Daisy met Tom and then married Tom.Ã Daisy had always been rich and thought that in order to get Daisy back, he need to have money and be able to give Daisy anything she wanted.Ã He found out that Daisy was in the east and went to go try to get her back. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã ...I thought of Gatsby's wonder when
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Identify and describe three reasons why there may be a physician shortage rather than a surplus in the U.S. William & Torrens (2010) provided a table to show the first time since 1965, between 2000 and 2005, there was a slight decrease in the ratio of physicians per 100,000 civilian populations. The three reasons why there is a physician shortage rather than a surplus in the United States is caused first of all by more restrictive elements that have been blunted due to widespread physician and patient dissatisfaction, particularly with limits of choice (Williams & Torrens, page 270). The move away from more efficient forms of organized medical practice commonly means that more physicians will be necessary to deliver the same level of care (Mick, 2004). Physicians and patients seem to prefer choice to efficiency, which will add pressure for more physicians and is the first of several possible factors fueling fears of a new shortage (Williams & Torrens, page 270). The second reason for the physician shortage in the United States is was a larger percentage of women in medical school. Wome n still do a majority of the tasks surrounding the raising of children and maintaining a home, leaving less time available for practice (Williams & Torrens, page 270). This demographic shift with the workforce may produce more pressure for more than fewer physicians (Williams & Torrens, page 270). Third, physician preferences now favor a more Ã¢â¬Å"controllable lifestyleÃ¢â¬ (Williams & Torrens, page 270). Young physicians today seek career opportunities with weekends off limiting the hours worked per week. These preferences over time will reduce the availability for patient care (Dorsey, Jarjorua, & Rutecki. 2003). Identify and describe three f... ...ion, the emergence of the hospital and hospital systems and their associated ambulatory clinics as the central institution of the health care system, and the large array of post hospitalization treatment venues that include nursing homes, rehabilitation facilitates, hospices, and home health organizations (Williams & Torrens, page 268). Secondly, technological innovation has also lead to increased specialization of health care personnel, primarily during the last 40 year (Williams& Torrens, page 268). This specialization opened the door to several new health care professions. The last role reviewed was health care workers that have gained the largest share of the overall number of allied health positions. They compose of a mere 1 to 2 percent in 1920, but in 2000 they made up over 54 percent (Williams & Torrens, page 268).
Saturday, August 17, 2019
The media, and Hollywood in particular, represent one avenue in which the general public becomes familiar with the role of nurses. How does the media positively or negatively influence the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s image of nursing? What other avenues may better educate the general public on the role and scope of nursing as well as the changing health care system? In Media, the portraying of nurses vary inaccurately in front of the viewing audience. The dominant image of nurse has always remained stereotype to majority of the viewers. In television nurses are tend to be just helpers of the physician in hospital but in actual life and situation its totally different. In TV serial named Grey anatomy and house it is represented that nurse are helpless , incompetent and physician are given a heroic image as representing triage medicine administration , providing psychosocial support , but in real world , itÃ¢â¬â¢s the nurse who do the above stated factor. However the grey anatomy doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mention anything about it , its nurse a who has a prime role in giving a total patient care and to be with patient 24 * 7 The medical media drama has always shown physician as a dominant , at top notch equivalent to god and saving life of patient and nurses are relatively low skilled and differential to physician. As nurse are set to be feminine extremes as categortrized into naughty nurse and in thoughtful words of X description. But in contrary its reverse and nurse are seen autonomous in decision making for nurses expertise in medicine, public health and advance research. Experts have an understanding that media just undermine nursing profession and do not focus in health development issues and action in relation to it. As only government and university conceptualize it in last. In today highly equipped media world, nursing focus many issue like staff shortage, poor working condition, low pay in high responsibility environment and many more which is not visualized. The factors has totally undervalued nurses looking at them as uneducated.
Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease is a common disease confronting many older people across the universe. It affects the cardinal nervous system and it impairs cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps. This disease largely affects the older coevals and it manifests itself with symptoms which include rigidness, shudder, postural instability, awkwardness in motion and others. Other symptoms include sleep troubles, centripetal and autonomic disfunction. Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease has a high prevalence rate among older people with about 500,000 people enduring from the disease in the United States. In add-on, there are about 1 million people who suffer from the disease but they have non been diagnosed yet ( Oxtoby et. al. , 2004 ) . This makes Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease a serious unwellness which requires pressing intercessions by society. Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease adversely affects the day-to-day life of people enduring from it since it affects their cognitive procedures or motor accomplishments. This makes most patients rely on household and friends for endurance. As a consequence, there are assorted plans which have been developed to provide for people enduring from the unwellness. This paper aims at analysing Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease including statistics and effects on patients. Assorted plans which cater for patients enduring from the disease will be discussed and farther intercessions needed to cut down inauspicious effects on society recommended. The discussed issues will be summarized at the terminal.Statisticss, causality and interventionIt has been stated that there are 500,000 people enduring from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease in the United States and a farther 1 million who have the disease but who have non been diagnosed yet. The disease kills an norm of 14,000 people yearly in the US. In the UK, about 1 % of hospital audiences are for Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease and the average age of patients diagnosed with the disease is 65. Globally, it is estimated that about 10 million suffer from the disease although there are few statistics on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. The cause of the disease is non known although it has been linked with genetic sciences in some instances. It has besides been linked to exposure to some insect powders. Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës is normally diagnosed by a combination of methods. It is hard to name the disease utilizing pathological agencies and clinical trials are normally used in naming Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës. Neuro-imaging is besides another effectual manner of naming the upset. The disease is normally treated utilizing medicine although at some phases complications may happen as a consequence of trust on medicine. Treatment techniques include the usage of MAO-B inhibitors, Dopastat agonists and L-dopa. Rehabilitation and diet have besides been seen to assist in allev iating symptoms. In utmost instances, encephalon stimulation and surgery is used to alleviate symptoms of the disease.Psycho-social challenges confronting affected patientsThere are many challenges which patients who suffer from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës face. Since the disease impairs cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps, it makes twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities hard to execute. Acts which many people take for granted such as speaking, walking, bathing, bathroom control, memory and others, may all of a sudden turn out disputing for Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës patients to execute. This may do them societal loads who require round the clock attending from their households or wellness attention practicians. Many patients particularly those who are hapless or marginalized are normally unable to entree such attention and they are left to endure on their ain. However, there are assorted groups and undertakings which are developed to provide for patients who can no n entree effectual attention. Patients enduring from symptoms of the disease may besides be unable to keep nice employment chances due to hapless cognitive and motor accomplishments as a consequence of the disease. Inability to keep employment makes such patients dependent on others. Patients who do non hold household and friends who may care for them normally do non hold entree to basic demands including wellness attention due to miss of employment. However, these excessively can profit from several plans which have been created to provide for patients enduring from the disease across the US. Another psycho-social challenge confronting many Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës patients is deficiency of entree to effectual wellness attention services. Many patients do non hold support from household and friends and they besides do non hold employment chances. As a consequence, they are unable to afford wellness attention insurance to pull off their status and this worsens their symptoms ( Grimes, 2004 ) . If the disease is left untreated for a long clip, such patients are exposed to human death. This may explicate the high figure of people who succumb to Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease which can be managed through intervention. In add-on, there is a high degree of psychological agony particularly for patients in the late phase of the unwellness. Such patients suffer from altered relationships, low ego regard, loss of liberty, societal isolation among other effects. These have an inauspicious consequence on mental wellness and they may take to the development of other mental unwellnesss such as p sychosis. It is hence of indispensable importance that a remedy is found for the unwellness. This may merely be achieved through research.Research undertakings on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës diseaseThere are assorted researches which have been conducted in order to understand the most effectual manner to name and handle the disease. In a research by Columbia University, 100 people of who half suffered from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease were studied for Dopastat degrees. The healthy population acted as the control group during research. The research findings showed that people enduring from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease lose up to 70 % of Dopastat in the encephalon ( National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 2011 ) . This determination was of import since it enabled scientists to develop new ways of naming the disease. They used PET imaging to mensurate Dopastat degrees and find if one suffers from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. Stimulation of these patients besides recorded improved mo tor working which is provides a footing for handling Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës patients. In another research projected undertaken by the National Institute of Health, three households of Grecian and Italian beginnings which suffered from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease were studied. The scientists aimed at happening out if genetic sciences is a causality of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. The research findings showed that in all households, there was a mutant of the cistron alpha-synuclein. This determination proved to be of import since it linked genetic sciences to the development of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. It besides encouraged scientists to further analyze the function of alpha-synuclein in development of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. Research findings on the impact of this cistron may organize the footing of developing a remedy for the disease. However, farther research on the disease is necessary in order to develop an effectual remedy.Successful community based plans for Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease patientsThere are assorted successful plans which have been developed to p rovide for patients enduring from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. Some of these plans will be briefly discussed below ;American Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease AssociationThis group was founded in 1961 with the aims of easing loads of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës sick persons and developing a remedy for this unwellness. It has its central offices in New York and the organisation undertakes several enterprises to help in forestalling and handling the disease ( American Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Association, 2011 ) . It has subdivisions in several provinces and the organisation provides attention to patients across America who suffer from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. It is chiefly funded by both the authorities and the private sector. This organisation has helped over 1 million patients to day of the month and this figure is bit by bit increasing. The APDA organisation provides financess for research on the disease in attempts to develop remedy. Already, over $ 1 billion has been used in this enterprise to day of the month. The organisation besides provides support for patients who suffer from the upset. It provides medical aid through associating patients with qualified wellness attention professionals and guaranting that medical costs are paid. This is normally aimed at supplying the hapless and marginalized people with no entree to wellness insurance with an chance to entree high quality intervention. Finally, the APDA organisation strives to educate the populace on the presence of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease in society and how to care for patients enduring from the disease. This is a really of import enterprise since it ensures that patients have moral and physical support from their friends, households and society at big.Columbia Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës SupportThis organisation was developed to supply information, support, consciousness and instruction on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. It is run by voluntaries and it is a non-profit group entirely developed to provide for demands of P arkinson Ã¢â¬Ës patients. Most of these voluntaries are patients who besides suffer from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës. The group began runing in 1985 and it has helped over 5,000 Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës patients since so. Its chief aims are back uping patients enduring from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës through fiscal or medical aid, set abouting research aimed at developing a remedy for the disease and sensitising the populace on the presence of the disease and how to care for patients who suffer from it ( Columbia Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Support, 2011 ) . The CPS group holds treatments and forums one time a hebdomad in attempts to sensitise the populace on the disease. Although this is a comparatively little group with limited support, the members participate in clinical tests whenever an chance presents itself and this is an of import measure towards developing a remedy for the disease. The group sets aside $ 3,000 yearly for research intents on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease. This group is funded by good wisher s and members every bit good as other stakeholders. The local community besides plays a major function in raising financess to back up the cause of the CPS group.Social intercessions which may assist pull off Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës diseaseThere are assorted intercessions which should be applied in order to assist pull off the effects of the disease in society. These intercessions will be briefly discussed below ;Educating populace on the diseaseEducating the populace on presence of the disease and how to care for patients who suffer from it is one of the most effectual ways of pull offing the disease. Patients who suffer from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës require support from the household, friends and community at big ( Duvoisin & A ; Sage, 2001 ) . Increasing consciousness of the disease amongst the local community enables patients enduring from this disease to hold mental and physical support from society. It besides informs the populace on the symptoms and causes of the disease thereby encoura ging cheque ups and early intervention on people enduring from symptoms of the disease.More support for research on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës diseaseAlthough there are many installations which undertake research on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease, most of these plans are under-funded. Many organisations and groups prefer funding research for diseases such as malignant neoplastic disease and diabetes which are viewed as more common and lifelessly. However, Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease is besides a serious disease which requires a similar degree of attending. More support should be provided by the authorities and private houses for research on the disease in order to develop an early remedy and salvage 1000000s of lives.Bettering entree to healthcare insuranceThere are more than 5 million people in the US who do non hold entree to wellness acre insurance. This is due to the high cost of insurance which is beyond their fiscal abilities. There are many people who suffer from Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës diseas e who fall in this bracket. Such patients are unable to entree medical attention to pull off the disease and this causes farther injury on their mental and physical wellness. Guaranting everyone has entree to wellness insurance is an effectual manner of contending the disease since it will promote early intercession and intervention thereby minimising the effects of the disease on society ( Michele, 2009 ) .Execution of the intercessionsIn order to efficaciously implement these intercessions, the authorities and private sector should organize a partnership. Partnership between the two would do support for Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease research and intervention easier. The community should besides be involved when implementing these intercessions. This is because patients require community support which may either be psychological or physical for their wellness to better. The authorities and local governments should guarantee that everyone has entree to wellness attention by cut downing wellness insurance costs and increasing support of wellness attention. This will guarantee that Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease is diagnosed and treated early for the bulk of patients.Summary and decisionAssorted facets of Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease have been discussed in item. Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës is a common disease in the US and across the universe although it is mostly unmarked. Its cause is unknown and it has no remedy. Over 500,000 people have been diagnosed with Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës in the US and 1 million others have the disease but have non been diagnosed. The disease affects patients physically, mentally and socially since it affects cognitive procedures, motor accomplishments and other maps, doing twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activities hard to execute. Patients who have been diagnosed with Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease suffer from psycho-social jobs such as inability to keep nice employment chances, deficiency of entree to effectual wellness attention services and psychol ogical agony particularly for patients in the late phase of the unwellness. Assorted groups such as Columbia Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Support and American Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës Disease Association contribute to bettering the public assistance of patients through increasing consciousness of the disease, funding research on the unwellness and supplying medical and fiscal aid to patients. In order to pull off the unwellness, assorted intercessions should be implemented and these include educating populace on the disease, apportioning more support for research on Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës disease and bettering entree to healthcare insurance by patients. This will guarantee that early diagnosing and intervention of the disease is achieved and that fewer people succumb to the effects of the disease. However, farther research is needed to develop a remedy for Parkinson Ã¢â¬Ës. Developing a remedy for the disease will salvage the lives of future coevalss.
Friday, August 16, 2019
Part I: Decision History Ã¢â¬â Buff Spalding Situation: Buff Spalding seems to have all the personal skills necessary to be successful but is not. Everyone appears to like Buff, and he is quite helpful to his coworkers, but it is not clear how Buff maintains his life style given his low earnings. How would you begin your conversation with Buff? You decided to: Ask to accompany Buff on several sales calls. Results: You accompanied Buff on several sales calls. You find Buff has very good sales skills but is violating company policy by selling real estate to his clients. What would you do next? You decided to: Ask around the company discreetly to find out more about BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation as a salesman and how he is able to maintain his lifestyle when his earnings are so low. Results: You tried to find out more about how Buff is able to maintain his lifestyle despite his low earnings. You receive proof that Buff is violating company policy by selling real estate to his Omega clients. What would you do next? You decided to: Consult with your superior about how to handle the situation. Results: You consulted your boss about how to deal with BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s low performance and violation of company policy. She informs you that you must correct this situation but without creating more difficulties for the company than necessary. What would you do next? You decided to: Call Buff in and ask him if the rumors you have heard are true. Results: You asked Buff if the rumors about his outside deals are true. Because you have clear evidence, he cannot deny your charge. You also learn that he does not highly value the income his Omega job provides. How would you deal with the violation of policy? You decided to: Tell Buff that he has a choice. He can either resign or end his real estate dealings. If he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t resign, you expect him to deliver a plan within 48 hours for ending his real estate involvements. Results: You told Buff that he either needs to resign or give you a plan for ending his real estate dealings. Buff gives you a plan that requires six months to execute and offers to resign if the plan does not work. How would you respond? You decided to: Call Buff and attempt to find out why he wants six months to make his plans about resigning. Results: You explored why Buff wants to stay on the job for six months. He says he may want to sell real estate full time, but he really likes the people at Omega. According to Buff, it will take him six months to execute his plan. What would you do next? You decided to: Try to negotiate a deal with Buff in which you would keep him on in a limited capacity. Results: Because Buff was being rewarded for not performing his job effectively, it appeared there was little you could do to motivate him to increase his performance. Your decision to negotiate a deal with Buff to reduce the negative impact on the company was successful. Part II: Decision Analysis and Application Buff Spalding is a Sales Representative for Omega and has been employed with the organization for eight years. The key responsibility of Sales Representatives is to make business calls to physicians and pharmaceutical wholesalers in an effort to sell OmegaÃ¢â¬â¢s products. Buff possesses a Bachelor of Science Degree in Marketing which fits very well with the job that he holds. BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s employment background prior to Omega includes sales roles within the automobile, clothing and real estate industries. He is a professional golfer as well. Buff works on a team of twelve Sales Representatives. His job performance with the company has been solid until the last two years. Job Performance Performance at Omega is measured in several ways including sales volume, percent of physicians contacted, and days of wholesale supply. In terms of sales volume, in the last two years Buff has been ranked last or second to last when compared to the other Sales Representatives on his team. While the standard percentage of physicians contacted is ninety percent, Buff has only contacted seventy percent. Lastly, days of wholesale supply is also measured. If wholesale inventory drops below fifty days within a sales territory, retailer stockouts occur. Whenever a stockout occurs, retailers substitute OmegaÃ¢â¬â¢s product with another manufacturerÃ¢â¬â¢s product, therefore causing Omega to lose business. BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s days of wholesale supply is forty two days, causing Omega to lose business due to stockouts occurring. BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s manager has held two discussions with him in the past regarding his performance. The Interview Due to BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s performance issues, an interview was conducted in an effort to identify why BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s performance was substandard. Through the interview process, it was determined that Buff was utilizing his professional relationships with Omega customers, physicians and pharmaceutical wholesalers, in order to sell real estate deals. This action is not only unethical; however, it is also a violation of company policy. Theory Application Even though Buff was a natural fit for a sales role, had a great personality, connected very well with his team, and was motivated to succeed; his motivation was not directed correctly. According to Dunham, direction and intensity are key components of the theory of motivation (2004). In order for an employee to be successful, it is important for employers to find ways to influence an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s direction and the amount of intensity to utilize (Dunham, 2004). Dunham cites that even though an individual starts off in the correct direction with the correct amount of intensity, at times, they locate another target that is more attractive, thus pulling them away from the original direction they were intended to follow (Dunham, 2004). This theory is applicable in BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s situation. During the first six years of BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s employment at Omega, his performance was strong and he was effectively doing his job. Within the last two years of employment; however, the real estate business became more enticing to him thus pulling him away from his original role. AldeferÃ¢â¬â¢s ERG Theory in regards to needs applies in BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s situation as well. According to Dunham, every individual has a very complex set of needs that should be met in order for them to be satisfied with their job roles and continue to be engaged at work (2004). In BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, initially he was very satisfied with his role as Sales Representative for Omega; however, after six years his needs changed. This change may have occurred due to number of things including his need to be challenged, recognized, be creative, take risks, have a manager who provided quality supervision, and feel accomplished. In BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s situation, while he enjoyed the sense of security that Omega provided, he was more appealed by the risk and financial rewards that the real estate industry offered. Lastly, the concept of performance management applies in the case of Buff Spalding. BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s performance issues existed for a period of two years prior to them being addressed by his manager. In order for employees to remain engaged in their work, it is imperative that measureable goals are set and employees are held accountable for meeting the goals. It is also important to reward employees for their successes and achievements. Due to BuffÃ¢â¬â¢s needs not being met, his lack of motivation to conduct his job role, and the lack of accountability that his manager provided; he was enticed to take a risk that violated company policy; therefore leading to the termination of his career at Omega. Interview ResultsÃ Buff violated a company policy whenever he made the decision to sell real estate to Omega customers. Due to this action, it was decided that Buff had to either resign his role at Omega or cease his real estate side business. When faced with the decision, Buff decided to resign his role at Omega. In order to ensure that customer relationships were minimally impacted, a decision was made to allow Buff to train his replacement and contact his current Omega customers to advise them of his decision to leave the organization. While this solution could be viewed as one that was very lenient in nature, it minimized the impact on the customers; therefore, making it the right thing to do. In the end, allowing Buff to personally tell his customers about his decision to leave the company and providing him with the opportunity to train his replacement allowed for a smoother transition for the customers, therefore saving their business relationships. In conclusion, all employees are motivated in one way or another. It is important for managers to closely manage their team in order to ensure that performance issues are addressed promptly and to provide direction to employees regarding the direction and level of intensity within their careers. Additionally, managers should set performance goals for their employees and continually track them to ensure that they are being held accountable for meeting the goals. Even though Buff was very motivated, unfortunately, his motivation was not to serve Omega customers in the way that he should have, thus causing Omega to experience a decreased sales volume and lose business. In order to prevent this in the future, the Regional Sales Manager should be proactive in holding performance discussions with the Sales Representatives, set measurable goals for them to work towards achieving, ensure that they remain on target to meet their goals and are held accountable if not, and recognize the Sales Representatives for their accomplishments along the way.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Cameron Campbell English 1010 October 25, 2012 Ã¢â¬Å"LongboardingÃ¢â¬ Grippy and maneuverable, longboards are safer for street surfinÃ¢â¬â¢ and they can give you the most bang for your skateboard buying buck. Many people in this country associate skateboarding with ollies, grinds, and other tricks made famous by icons of the sport such as Tony Hawk. However, there is an entirely different way to utilize a board with wheels attached to it which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t involve any hopping or flipping, just riding it. Longboards are wonderful for those who enjoy being outside and schussing down a smoothly paved hill.Longboarding matches similar feelings and maneuvers associated with surfing and snowboarding. Instead of relying on the ocean or a snowy mountain, most people can find a decent patch of pavement for some exhilarating laid-back fun. Young people around the country purchase longboards for purposes that symmetrical skateboards struggle to perform, such as transportation over long distances and achieving sharper turns. The shape of these boards, their elevation from the ground, and their rubber wheels allow much smoother, faster riding than the characteristics of normal skateboards.Not only is the act of riding a longboard much different than that of a common skateboard, but there is also an entirely different culture for the sport. Instead of starting from scratch, trying to learn tricks that may intimidate new skateboarders, all a budding longboarder needs to succeed is balance and a little confidence. The popularity of longboarding is largely attributed to how fun it is. The rush of cruising at high velocities coupled with the friendly, carefree culture that boarders have established help make longboarding a timeless sport.